All the most common file types that can be used to deliver malicious code, including Microsoft Office files, are supported in Intezer Analyze.
Phishing attacks are one of the most common causes of security breaches according to Verizon’s 2021 Data Breach Investigations Report. Most phishing attacks arrive via emails containing malicious attachments. A seemingly innocent Microsoft Word file, for example, can be the initial infection stage of a dangerous attack where a threat actor uses a document to deliver malware.
Handling Malicious Microsoft Office Files During Incident Response
When handling a security breach, the incident response team will collect suspicious files and evidence from the compromised endpoint in order to investigate the incident. One of the challenges IR teams face is finding all of the malicious files that were used in the attack and classifying them to their relevant malware family.
Binary files are usually the main suspect. We know that malicious code was executed, so we search for suspicious binary files containing this code (looking for recently installed programs, for example). Non-binary files like Microsoft Office documents should also be carefully examined because they can be the first stage of an attack that caused the malware execution to begin with.
Office documents are widely used by threat actors to deliver malware. Usually, the file is attached to an email that is crafted to look like a legitimate communication. Threat actors use social engineering techniques to persuade the victim into opening the malicious attachment.
In this article, we will explain the different types of Microsoft Office file formats and how attackers abuse these documents to deliver malware. You will also be presented with tools and techniques that can help you better identify and classify malicious Microsoft Office files.
Types of Microsoft Office File Formats
When collecting files that could be related to an incident, you might notice that many files contain various extensions (.txt, .dotm, .zip, .docx, .pdf) which belong to different applications. For the purpose of this blog, we will focus on the three main types of file formats in Microsoft Office: Word, Excel, and PowerPoint. First, let’s explain the structure of these files and how they differ from one another.
Object Linking and Embedding (OLE)
OLE2 format was used in Microsoft Word 97–2003 documents and other Microsoft products such as Outlook messages. The well-known file extensions .doc, .xls and .ppt are all file types based on the OLE format. An OLE file is a compound file and it is structured as a file system within a file. OLE files are formatted as ZIP and the contents of the file can be viewed using oledir utility (this is part of oletools which will be explained later in this post).
The OLE file contains:
- Streams of data where each stream has a name. A file must contain at least one stream. For example, for Word documents, it is mandatory to contain a stream called WordDocument, which is the main stream that contains the document text.
- Storages that contain streams or other storages.
- Properties that are streams containing information about the document, such as author, title, creation, and modification date. Property streams always start with x05.
Layout of an OLE file as presented by oldedir utility, showing the macros storage, main stream, and properties.
Office Open XML (OOXML)
This file format was incorporated into Microsoft Office 2007. It is a zipped XML-based format developed by Microsoft and used for all Microsoft Office files. The associated extensions include .docx, .xlsx and .pptx. OOXML files are structured in a similar way to OLE files but there are several differences between them:
- Each directory in the OOXML file contains a .xml file that can be seen in the screenshot below.
- A file called [Content_Types].xml must be in the root directory of the archive. It contains all of the content types included in the archive.
- OOXML files cannot contain VBA macros (we will elaborate on this in the next section).
- OOXML files contain any objects including images, OLE objects, PE files, media files, and more.
- Relationships between objects are described in the files with .rels extension.
Layout of an OOXML file.
Rich Text Format (RTF)
RTF is another document format developed by Microsoft. RTF files encode text and graphics in a way that makes it possible to share the file between applications. In the past, it was more difficult to open a .doc file without having Microsoft Office or even a Windows PC, so using RTF became a convenient solution.
Unlike the previous formats we talked about, RTF files consist of unformatted text, control words, groups, backslash, and delimiters. Like OOXML, RTF files don’t support macros.
Output of oleid utility for an RTF file.
In general, you should never trust the suffix of a file because attackers deliberately change the suffix to trick victims into opening them. Always verify the file type that you are analyzing. You can use the file command (Linux/Mac) or the oleid utility from oletools developed by Decalage. This utility displays useful and important information about the file, including the file type and encryption.
Why Document Files Can be Dangerous and How to Analyze Them
There are several ways in which a document can be weaponized with malware and used to launch an attack.
This technique is documented within MITRE ATT&CK® T1137.
Macros save users time by allowing them to automate a series of commands that can be triggered by different actions. Usually, macros are written in Visual Basic for Applications (VBA), a language developed by Microsoft and supported by all Microsoft Office products. Another way to create a macro is to record it within the Microsoft Office application. Macros are a powerful tool that gives users access and permissions to resources of the local system. Attackers use macros to modify files on the system and to execute the next stage of an attack.
By default, OOXML files (.docx, .xlsx, .pptx) can’t be used to store macros. Only specific files with enabled-macro can be used to contain VBA macros. The goal is to make it easier to detect files that have macros and to reduce the risk of attacks that use macros. Files with enabled macros use the letter m at the end of the extension such as .dotm, .docm, .xlsm, and .pptm.
Because of the great security risks of macros, Microsoft added several security measures to restrict the execution of macros. The most effective way to protect the system is to entirely disable macros, but it’s not always possible as macros are a handy tool for many organizations. Another option is manually enabling macros and enforcing limitations on the source and integrity of the document. When a user opens a file containing macros, including OLM files such as .doc, Microsoft Office applications will show a warning message. An alternative solution is to open files in Protected View. Essentially, the file is available only for reading to prevent attackers from executing commands and manipulating the user or file. For more information, check out Microsoft’s website.
In a recent attack documented by Kaspersky Lab, a threat actor sent spear phishing emails luring victims to open a malicious Microsoft Excel file. The file used Excel 4.0 macros, which is an older version of macros used to automate tasks in Excel. The macros are hidden in empty cells and spreadsheets so that when the file is opened, malware is downloaded and executed.
Another type of attack method is based on remote .dotm template file injection. If an attacker creates a .docx file and convinces the victim to open the file and press enable content, the file will load a malicious template file from a remote location that executes malware. While the .docx doesn’t contain the macro code itself, the content of the file leads to execution of the macro.
How do I detect and analyze malicious Office macros?
Let’s analyze this doc file: MD5: 167949ba90da85c8b56878d95be19c1a.
First, we can run the oleid tool as described in the previous section. Once we establish that the file contains a VBA macro, we can use the olevba utility to get more information about the VBA and view the code of the macro.
Oleid output for an OLE file.
Part of the output of olevba.
Now, we need to analyze the code of the macro to understand if the file is malicious (macros can also be used for legitimate reasons). To get the streams in the file which contain the code of the VBA macro, you can either unzip the document file and open the file that contains the macro (olevba identifies the file name), or use oledump.
The VBA code in malicious Microsoft Office files is frequently obfuscated, and it may look similar to the image below. Attackers will obfuscate a macro’s code to make it harder and more time-consuming for antiviruses and malware analysts to understand what the code is doing. Attackers use several techniques including:
- Encrypting strings and API calls (usually using Base64)
- Adding random characters to obfuscate strings and API functions
- Mangling the names of functions and variables
- Using shellcode to execute malicious functions
- Dynamically defining functions
- VBA stomping
Obfuscated VBA macro shown in olevba output.
There are two ways to deobfuscate the code:
- Statically – manually resolve the obfuscated code. You can use the –decode argument in olevba which will attempt to decode the VBA code
- Dynamically – run the code in a sandbox or emulator such as ViperMonkey
While the main disadvantage of static malware analysis is that it can be time-consuming, dynamic analysis can sometimes fail to detect certain techniques and malicious Office documents.
After deobfuscating the code, you will have a better understanding of what the attacker is trying to achieve. Usually, they start PowerShell and run commands to gather information about the system, and download a malicious payload from a remote host to begin the next stage of the attack.
Abusing Windows Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE)
This technique is documented in MITRE ATT&CK® T1559.
DDE is a protocol that is used to share data between Microsoft Office applications. Object Linking and Embedding (OLE), the ability to share data between documents, was implemented using this protocol. This protocol gives attackers the ability to execute different commands including being able to download additional malicious payloads. This method can be used both in OLE and OOXML files.
Newer versions of Office applications alert users when a document is attempting to execute a DDE command. Attackers have since crafted their phishing emails to trick victims into ignoring these alerts, allowing the execution of malicious code. This method is widely used by threat actors including APT28 and FIN7.
How to detect and analyze Windows files that use Dynamic Data Exchange
To detect files that use DDE, you can scan the strings of the file and look for keywords such as DDEAUTO or DDE. This can be time-consuming and some strings might be missed. To make the process easier, you can use YARA rules that are designed to identify keywords and features used by DDE. Using the zipdump utility also lets you run YARA rules to examine the content of ZIP files.
Another tool that can be used for detecting files that use DDE is msodde from oletools. A file that uses this infection method will have an output similar to the following image.
Output of msodde.
Abusing .rels – Template Injection
This technique is described in MITRE ATT&CK® T1221.
OOXML files are ZIP archives composed of XML (.rels) files containing properties that define how the document is constructed. The properties can refer to parts that are stored in the archive file, on the local machine, or on a remote resource via URLs. Attackers can use this feature to conceal malicious code by storing it on a remote server and to avoid detection by standard EDRs because the Office document itself doesn’t contain malicious code. There are many types of properties that can be used, one of them being the template.
A report from Proofpoint explains a novel technique that uses RTF template injection being exploited by several Advanced Persistent Threat (APT) groups. RTF files include their properties as plain text strings. Attackers can modify the location of the *template property within a decoy RTF file to refer to a malicious script that is loaded once the RTF file is opened.
Detect and analyze files with template injection
Running oleid can help you focus your attention on a certain technique that was possibly used in the document. Let’s analyze this .docx file: MD5: 8d1ce6280d2f66ff3e4fe1644bf24247
Output of oleid.
Using the oleobj utility you can get the references used in this document. The output of the command is shown below:
Output of oleobj.
This document downloads a temple file (.dot) from a domain that belongs to an APT group called Gamaredon. By analyzing these files, you can make a clear attribution and you also have more IoCs (including the domain and the payload) to further the investigation.
Known vulnerabilities of Office products are patched by Microsoft all the time. However, many organizations still don’t patch their software, making it possible for attackers to exploit vulnerabilities that are several years old. CISA and the FBI issued a security alert describing three vulnerabilities related to Microsoft’s OLE technology still being exploited by state-sponsored actors. These vulnerabilities are CVE-2017-11882, CVE-2017-0199, and CVE-2015-1641.
HP researchers say that the most frequently exploited vulnerability in 2020 was CVE-2017-11882. When successfully exploited, attackers have the ability to execute arbitrary code after the user opens a document containing the exploit.
Detect and analyze vulnerabilities in Microsoft Office
When it comes to files that exploit vulnerabilities, it can be hard to identify and analyze the payload to determine if the file is malicious and what threat it poses.
For example, CVE-2017-11882 contains a buffer overflow vulnerability in Microsoft Equation Editor that enables attackers to execute arbitrary code once the victim opens a specially crafted document. You should look for an OLE equation object containing shellcode and inspect it thoroughly. But even if there is a suspicious payload, it needs to be executed in a sandbox in order to determine what the shellcode does.
One-Stop Shop for Analyzing Malicious Microsoft Office Files
We have presented several tools and utilities that can be used to analyze Office files. Different file types and payloads sometimes require different tools. In other cases, the file needs to be opened in order to allow the execution of commands and shellcodes so that the investigator understands which malware or threat is delivered in the document. Moreover, some attacks contain several stages. Each stage will deliver another weaponized file. The bottom line is analyzing malicious Microsoft Office files can be time-consuming and requires both experience and an understanding of the different formats.
Fortunately, Intezer’s malware analysis platform can help you speed up the process of classifying and analyzing files. To get started, upload any type of Microsoft Office document to the platform. The analysis will provide you with a trusted or malicious verdict. If the file is malicious, Intezer will also tell you what malware family it belongs to. The information provided in the analysis report gives investigators an immediate understanding of the type of threat they are dealing with, its capabilities, and relevant IoCs for threat intelligence teams.
Let’s analyze the file we examined earlier containing VBA macros. Instead of spending time cracking the obfuscated code, the analysis report gives you a malicious verdict and classifies the malware as AsyncRAT.
Intezer Analyze analysis of a document containing VBA macros.
Clicking on TTPs will reveal the techniques and capabilities used by the file as well as the malware that was executed afterwards. This file is capable of executing scripts and installing itself to automatically run upon Windows startup, among other capabilities.
TTPs tab in the analysis.
Click on IoCs in the analysis and you will have details about the network connections made by the file. Network IoCs can be used to hunt for other files in the system in case the threat actor has compromised other endpoints.
IoCs reveal the IP addresses and domains used by the malware along with hashes of the files that are downloaded by the Word document.
Behavior provides a deeper level of the capabilities for this threat. You can see the content of the file. In some cases, this can help you understand who was the targeted end user and what action led to the execution of code. Below is a process tree, beginning with opening the Microsoft Word file and leading to malware execution. This gives you a full picture of the programs and processes that are used by this threat. Next, you can see lists of files and registry keys that are used by the malware. This data can be used for further investigation of the compromised endpoint and to hunt for similar threats.
Microsoft Office files are used by attackers to deliver malware to endpoints. Attackers are leveraging both the different file formats and vulnerabilities in Office products to launch malicious commands that will eventually lead to malware. Often, the malicious functionality is hidden or obfuscated, making the analysis more difficult and lengthy.
We presented several open-source tools that can help investigators analyze Office files but in more advanced cases the process can still be time-consuming. To speed up the investigation and classification of Office files, you can upload them to Intezer Analyze to instantly get a full analysis report including the verdict and the type of malware that is executed.
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